The South Island Brown Kiwi, also called 'Tokoeka', is a nocturnal and rarely seen kiwi subspecies. This threatened and endemic bird grows up to 55 cm tall, is flightless and related to ostriches and emus. Kiwis feed primarily on invertebrates, secondly on plants and fruits. This species mainly inhabits Fiordland's forested areas and are found from coastline to sub-alpine territories.
The population north of Lake Manapouri is estimated to have 10,000 individuals, whereas another population in the south has between 4000 to 5000 individuals. Introduced species such as the stoat threatens the Southern Brown Kiwi. Two subspecies are found in the Haast and on Stewart Island. The Haast kiwi however is critically endangered with a remaining population of 100 to 250 birds.